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samuelsson's horse care tips 11-20

These horse care tips come from a translation from Samuelsson's Horse Care book - from a book I inherited from my grandfather who had horses. His book was printed in 1863, and is itself a translation from the original which was published in Sweden around 1775. I have translated this from old Finnish, and so some of the "clumsiness" in translation is intentional. (I have added the more modern terms in brackets in blue.) 



11. Another against inner worms.

As was said, worms come from bad, spoilt food and filthy drink. Take 1.7 g of vitriol, German soap and Theriac. Cook this in wine- or beer-winegar and give to the horse (= make him eat it). 


(1/8 of "luoti". Luoti = 13,28 g and 1/8 = 1.7g.  Grain = 0.068g. 25 x 0.068g = 1,7g.)

12. To the same

Take a pea-size piece of asafoetida (called demon-shit in Finnish because of its foul smell) (Asa foetida), 1,7 g  of good vitriol, two ordinary knife-tip's worth of juniper (sabina)  (The Finnish term is sääwenpummi, in Swedish säfvebom. Could not find the Finnish word anywhere, but a web search of säfvebom + sabina brought Juniperus Sabina. And as sabina is used in this book so I am pretty certain we are talking about Juniperus Sabina here) . Chop these into fine powder and give to the horse using a paper cone. After this drive the horse warm, and then cover well with rugs and don't let him ear for three hours.

(1/8 of "luoti". Luoti = 13,28 g and 1/8 = 1.7g.  Grain = 0.068g. 25 x 0.068g = 1,7g.)

13. Worm in chest that causes abscesses and bumps and is called Snake-worm (Orme-matken)

As soon as you see the chest to swell and become big, take 1,7g of Hepar-Antimonio (see 1 ->) , and 6.5 scruples / 130 grains worth (see 2 ->) of the noble horse-powder (more of which at the end of the book). Put these together into a paper-cone.

Open the horse's lung-vein from one side, and once you have shut it, give the paper cone to the horse.  If the swelling has decreased on the third day, the horse is unharmed. If the abscess has not decreased, grind together half an ounce + 8,4 scrubles of vitriol (see 3 ->) , 1,7g of verdigris (Wasken-ruoste / "Bronze-rust = Spanish Green,  viride aeris); boil them two jugs / 1 gallon + 1 pint (see 4 ->) of lake- or river-water for a quarter of an hour. Poultice with this twice a day.

Put some human stool into a cloth and place this over the smeared and poulticed abscess, tie the cloth in place. All this time keep the horse indoors so that the wind may not blow on him. 




1) 1/8 of "luoti". Luoti = 13,28 g and 1/8 = 1.7g.  Grain = 0.068g. 25 x 0.068g = 1,7g

2) 5/8 luoti = 8,5g. Scruple = 20 grains = 1.296 grams. 6,5 x scruple / 130 x grains = 8.424 g

3) (2 luoti = 26,56g. ½ ounce / 15.55 g + 8,5 x 1 scruple / 11g - one scruple being 1.296 g - = 26,55g)

4) (1 jug = 2,617 l, 2 jugs = 5,23 l.  1 gallon = 4,546 l, 1 pint = 568,26 cubic centimeters)

14. When a horse has worms in his body, so that he has diarrhoea and vomits (bumps) 

As soon as you see evidence of this, take 1,7g of Hepar-Antimonio (see 1 ->), 6.5 scruples / 130 grains worth (see 2 ->) of the noble horse-powder. Put in a paper cone and give to the horse. Take cat feces with a wooden spatula and put on the horse's tongue. Then drive slowly for an hour; and don't let the horse eat for 4 hours. If it is winter, cover him with rugs and give him straw to eat.


1) (1/8 of "luoti". Luoti = 13,28 g and 1/8 = 1.7g.  Grain = 0.068g. 25 x 0.068g = 1,7g.)

2) (5/8 luoti = 8,5g. Scruple = 20 grains = 1.296 grams. 6,5 x scruple / 130 x grains = 8.424 g)


15. When the horse chews / gnaws his box

This is probably caused by inner trouble, acidity in the stomach or worms.

To help with the first ailment, give the horse 3 to 4 times a day, mixed with his food (works best when finely cut) three ounces of chalk  (see ->) which needs to be very finely chopped. If the chewing is caused by worms, then the next one will help.

(kwintini = 91g. 1 ounce = 31,103g, 3 ounces = 93,3g. Close enough) 

16. Worms in a horse

Few horses are without worms; it's their great amount that are bad for a horse. Symptom of this is that he eats greedily at times, at times only a little, and at times not at all, is dry, thin and looks ruffled. Most of the times he looks melancholy, looks at his sides, gnaws and kicks himself as if there were flies or someone stung or tickled him. Often you can even see the worms. The remedy that helps in this ailment is as follows:

Early in the morning give him less than 1/3 quart of water (see 1 ->) half an ounce + 8,4 scrubles of dried and chopped root of eagle fern (ormbunkem, Pteris aquilina) (see 2 ->).  Two hours after this you give a ball that contains three ounces (see 3 ->) of aloe cabalina (horse aloe), one ounce (see 4 ->) of ox gall, and 1/3 ounce + 2 pennyweights (see 5 ->) of aethiops mineralis (buy from the pharmacy, black sulphide mercury). Into this mix as much honey or juniper perry jam as needed. If the worms won't leave the horse after one dose, repeat this every or every other day.  This amount and the ball can be increased or decreased according to need. The longer the horse is without eating before and after the giving of this medicine, the better is the effect.

1) written as 1 "kortteli" = 0.327 l, quart = 0,946l, 1/3 of a quart = 0,315 l - close enough

2) written as 2 "luoti" = 26,56g. ½ ounce / 15.55 g + 8,5 x 1 scruple / 11g - one scruple being 1.296 g - = 26,55g

3) (kwintini = 91g. 1 ounce = 31,103g, 3 ounces = 93,3g. Close enough)

4) 1/2 "kwintini" = 30,5g, 1 ounce = 31,103 g, close enough

5) written as 1 "luoti" = 13,28 g. 1 ounce = 31,03 g, 1/3 = 10,34 g. 1 pennyweight = 1,555g, 2 pennyweights = 3,11 g, together 13,45 g, close enough


17. Advice against fur-worms


This is known from apple-like abscesses on the horse, out of which comes a worm when they are squeezed. The horse has no rest, but chewes himself, itches and rubs himself against anything he can.

Take 1,7g (see 1 ->) of Hepar-Antimonio  and 6.5 scruples / 130 grains worth (see 2 ->) of the noble horse-powder  into a paper cone. Open the lung-vein. Put the paper cone at the level of the front teeth. Make sure the horse's head is not too high. You give half of this this medicine every fourth day for 3 to 4 times in all.

Also rub with the following concotion in places where can you see the fur-worm is. This concotion is made of the following ingredients:  1/3 quart of honey (see 3 ->) 1/3 quart of milk; and 1 ounce and 5.5 pennyweights (see 4 ->) of arsenic (Arsenicum, poisonous substance)  a handful of wheat flour. Mix all these together, warm the mixture and then spread on the horse.

1) (1/8 of "luoti". Luoti = 13,28 g and 1/8 = 1.7g.  Grain = 0.068g. 25 x 0.068g = 1,7g.

2) 5/8 luoti = 8,5g. Scruple = 20 grains = 1.296 grams. 6,5 x scruple / 130 x grains = 8.424 g

3) the word used is "kortteli" = 0,327 l. 1 quart = 0,946 l., 1/3 quart = 0,315 l

4) written as 3 "luoti" = 3 x 13,28 g = 39,84g. 1 ounce = 31,03 g, 1 pennyweight = 1,555g.  5,5 pennyweights = 8,55 g, together 39,58 g, close enough



18. Pain in withers

When there are smaller abrasions or holes that reach all the way to the neck-bone, the horse is very sore. First cut off the mane from the length of the abrasions. Take an egg-sized piece of unsalted butter, milt of herring; with this mixture spread the clean-shaven parts once a day.

19. Thrush in horse's hoof

This is known from the fact that the frog of the hoof swells ja move from side to side when walking. When opened, brown water flows out. You must not let the wound close; instead you must clean it with vitriol-water.

Take 1 pound + 1 ounce + 13,5 pennyweights (see ->) of alun, the same amount of wheat flour, also honey; these are mixed together and knead into a loaf and burned on a sheet of iron into powder, which is then sprinkled into the wound.

written as "naula" = 425,076 g. 1 pound = 373 g, 1 ounce = 31,103 g, 1 pennyweight = 1,555 g and 13,5 x pennyweight = 20,99g, together 425,02 g

20. Good eye-powder

Take three nutshell's worth of ginger that has been peeled until white; one nutshell of salt, half a nutshell of verdigris (Wasken-ruoste / "Bronze-rust = Spanish Green,  viride aeris); grind these together. It is good to use this powder in the following eye illnesses:  claw in the eye, glaucoma, ice, (häiwä?), bulging or swollen eyes, runny eyes with rheum. For each disease other medication is given also.

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